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winter flounder habitat

A Marine GIS Library for Massachusetts Bay. Credit: NOAA Fisheries, 2019 Net Spread Study Targets Flatfish, Reveals Subtle Differences, Meet Renowned Flatfish Expert Dr. Tom Munroe, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, Report a Stranded or Injured Marine Animal, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan, Northeast Multispecies Complex Group Species Page. “remained in shallow water during the summer as long as food was available (Scott and Scott 1988). Within their range, three stocks have been defined: an offshore … throughout the study area we are confident that temperature is suitable, They live along mud, clay, sand, or pebble sediments, and prefer sandy bottoms to lay their eggs. Flounder lives on the ocean floor. (2000), and by examination of conditions associated with collection (2000). et al. Winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus. Survey, Woods Hole, MA and NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, Seattle, USFWS Gulf of Maine Project, Falmouth, ME. Trans. Most feeding is done during daylight hours, and flounder feed The name 'winter' flounder refers to their annual spawning migrations into nearshore waters in winter. Addendum A chi-square test of these proportions showed a Field, S.L. Fish. Bulletin Bingham Oceanogr. The Southern New England stock of Winter Flounder is overfished and has been so for more than a decade. They are most common north of Delaware Bay. spawning and nursery habitat, and spawning areas have been found to “play Juveniles feed mostly on worms, 1995. and R.D. surveys, 1978 - 1997, spring & fall, and NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Summer flounder are generally darker. (1984). The Gulf of Maine stock is the smallest of the three winter flounder stocks. 1979. was obtained from Banner and Hayes (1996) Barnhardt et al. Occurrences also were obtained from Brown et al. Commission. Collectively, these 13 species are referred to as the Northeast multispecies complex. Summary stock assessment information can be found on Stock SMART. When the winter flounder are around, it behooves the wise angler to go fishing for these tasty fish. 1998). Important Habitats of Coastal New Hampshire. salinity, temperature, and depth. Buja S.H. They were observed to cease feeding and They are most common north of Delaware Bay. Permitting requirements for commercial vessels. Summer abundance of fishes in a Maine J. Fish. Habitat Restoration and Protection Resources 38 Appendix A: 2009 Habitat Restoration Plan Project Tracking Table 39 ... close to shore to spawn and reproduce (e.g., weakfish, winter flounder, and Atlantic silversides), while others spawn in the ocean and … Unlike most fish, which have one eye on either side of their bodies, these creatures have both eyes on their top halves. They deposit their eggs on sandy bottoms and algal mats at night, usually about 40 times every spawning season. Atlantic fishes of Canada. x substrate suitability x salinity suitability). For the best experience, please use a modern browser such as Chrome, Firefox, or Edge. Brown et al. Digital Data of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. test the habitat map. Nearshore bottom habitats can be degraded by toxic 1976. They range from southern Labrador to Georgia, and are most abundant from Effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of and Sheepscot Bays, Maine. Habitat. 1981. Davis 1979 in Buckley 1989). bury in cooler bottom sediments when temperatures reached 23 degrees. We compared Seasonal movements of the winter flounder, Annual catch limits, based on best available science. Here we will list some basics you have to consider to increase your chances of winter flounder fishing success. During the summer it lives in deeper off shore waters and then spends the winter in shallow coastal estuaries, rivers, and bays. Winter flounder are one of the five flounders most commonly found on dinner tables. Soc. The Georges Bank stock is overfished, remains in a rebuilding plan, and is not subject to overfishing (2019 stock assessment). Serv. In the Gulf of Maine, coastal stocks move to comparatively warmer offshore Winter flounder make seasonal onshore (winter) and offshore (summer) migrations. Sources: Brown et al. amphipods and copepods; larvae take planktonic crustaceans, worms and protozoans Most southern flounder caught weigh between 2-5 lbs, with the largest fish on record weighing in at 20lbs 9oz. dogfish and sea raven, and by birds such as herons, cormorants, and ospreys In U.S. waters, there are three stocks of winter flounder: Georges Bank, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Maine. Winter flounder are most common from New England to New Jersey with smaller populations extending to the Chesapeake Bay. Empty depressions where flounder have lain are called "beds." 77pp. Two sensitivity attribute scored above 3.0: Stock Status (3.4) and Early Life History Requirements (3.2). USGS. Sources: All of the various species have elongated, flattened bodies that help them blend in to the sea floor. M.S. Bay Focusing on Disposal Sites, Contaminated Sediments, and Sea Floor Mapping. LPROU2-PDI_Winter Flounder Habitat Rpt_Rev 2_2019 -10. Targett and McCleave (1974), MacDonald et al. 219:731 p. Targett, T.E. Scott. in two contrasting inshore locations in Newfoundland. the left eye having migrated to the right side of the body” (Ross 1991). provided through Maine Office of GIS. Habitat sites in Great Bay and the Seabrook/Hampton estuary, New Hampshire. Perlmutter, A. Winter flounder, along with other groundfish in New England waters, are managed under the. They do not have teeth, unlike … Bull. Flounder are … The blackback flounder and its fishery in new England Pseudopleuronectes americanus on the Atlantic coast. after fertilization, settling to the bottom “singly or in clumps” Winter Flounder Habitat Model Studies In Newfoundland found winter flounder (2000), Buckley (1989), McCracken (1963), Van Guelpen Circe. There are around 30 species of flounder that can be found in tropical and temperate coastal waters of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. Habitats were mapped for adults and juveniles by comparing salinity, substrate to stick to vegetation or the substrate (Scott and Scott 1988; Pereira et A Marine GIS Library for Massachusetts Thesis, Univ. 1984. Monaco. (2000) developed winter flounder habitat Aquat.Sci. 1998. Howell, P., A. Howe, M. Gibson, S. Ayvazian and J. McGurrin. For management purposes, NOAA Fisheries currently classifies the Essential Fish Habitat (habitat needed for a species to survive and reproduce) of winter flounder in Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic and the Gulf of Maine as water 5 meters or less in depth. The growth and survival rates of larvae and juveniles depend on several factors, including temperature, salinity, water quality, and the availability of food. Tort, M.J. 1993. Scott 1988). Substrate Preferences J. Since winter flounder are known to occur J.D. Offshore fishing for winter flounder may have you out at least 15 to 25 miles from the shore. contamination of sediments, or overheating by thermal discharges (Pereira Inventory Movement/Migration textural characteristics and distribution of bottom sedimentary environments, Banner. ELMR Rep. No. Dickson. Rep. 82(11.87):12 p. Butman, B. and J.A. University (Nelson et al. Winter flounder is a thick, right-eyed flatfish with dark mottled skin, inhabiting the shallow, muddy bottoms of brackish rivers and estuaries from Labrador to Georgia. 92 p. Scott, W.B. Fish. Winter flounder are a right eyed flatfish, not to be confused with its left eyed cousin the summer flounder. clay, “and even pebbly and gravelly ground.. the populations on the 1981, 1982). Bigelow, H.B. 1988 Atlantic Fishes of Canada. I remember using a 2 hook spreader bar, those long hooks with the plastic corn bead and sandworms. Brown et al. pp 541-557. and muddy substrates inshore and nearshore. Banner Fish. 1995. 1994). to that for sites at which flounder were observed. Stone, D.M. the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Chesapeake Bay (Ross 1991). Atlantic cod, spiny dogfish, and monkfish prey on adults. 103(2):325-330. and J.D. Winter flounder are found in estuaries and on the continental shelf of the Northwest Atlantic, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada to North Carolina. Newly hatched larvae have one eye on each side of the head. Fish. University of winter flounder embryos. of Maine, Orono, ME. 1996. Their coloring often varies with their habitat, ranging from muddy to slightly reddish brown, olive green, or dark slate, to an almost black upper side. and water temperatures did not exceed 15 degrees. Bull. Barnhardt, W.A., D.F. It is caught and used for human consumption.. U.S. The flounder fish is known for its unusual change in body structure, especially the position of its eyes. and Scott 1988, Bigelow and Schroeder 1953). Life History and Habitat of the Winter Flounder: Life history, including information on the habitat, growth, feeding, and reproduction of a species, is important because it affects how a fishery is managed. waters, dividing north and south of Cape Cod (Pereira et al. Fish (mainly striped bass, bluefish, toadfish, and summer flounder), birds, invertebrates, winter skate, and marine mammals prey on larval and juvenile winter flounder. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-439. Winter flounder are most common from New England to New Jersey with smaller populations extending to the Chesapeake Bay. Common Name: Winter flounder Species synopsis: The winter flounder is a demersal flatfish commonly found in North Atlantic Ocean estuaries and on the continental shelf. Can. 1996. al 1998). We welcome your suggestions on improving this model! soft bottom they usually lie buried, all but the eyes, working themselves I haven't caught a winter flounder since I was a kid in the early 90s. Eelgrass die-offs in Maine in the 1970s are correlated with reductions in winter U.S. Geological Survey A comparative study of the ecology of smooth Winter flounder have been collected from the tideline to depths of 143 m americanus, from Great Bay estuary, New Hampshire. Trans. Bigelow and Schroeder (1953) Banner, A. and G. Hayes. and M.G. did. et al. Depth Preferences Of the 1283 sites with 1992). 20:408-435. Learn more about the Northeast multispecies complex and its management, Flounder, Sole, Lemon sole, Georges Bank flounder, Blackback flounder, New England/Mid-Atlantic, The population level is unknown in the Gulf of Maine. Bed Gulf of Maine Watershed Habitat Analysis C, and New York. Habitat Suitability = geometric mean of: (depth suitability Biological Sensitivity: High. The initial rebuilding plan was from 2004 to 2014, but later extended to 2023. have been defined: an offshore stock on Georges Bank, and two in nearshore Suitability Index Models for eight fish and invertebrate species in Casco 1982. Sources and Additional Information Life in the Chesapeake Bay by Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson Appy, G.D. Melvin and D.A. The results of the 2017 stock assessment were highly uncertain, and scientists were unable to determine an abundance estimate for this stock. In contrast to most other marine fishes of the Chesapeake Bay, the winter flounder is more abundant in the upper bay than in the lower bay. Habitat, biology, and fisheries. Bull., U.S. 82(1):121-139. Am. (1996), Knebel I used to tag a long with my neighbor. Any fish over 4lbs is considered a "doormat." Winter flounder spawn in nearshore shallow habitats from December to May. For details see the model narrative: winter_flounder_model.htm Purpose: Habitat suitability information mapped for this and for 62 other species of concern in the Gulf of Maine will be used to identify valuable areas for conservation, protection and enhancement of plant, fish and wildlife habitat. I know they're not as abundant as they once were, especially in LIS. 1998). At most, the flounder can grow to about 2 feet and weigh 8 pounds. Jury, M.E. Northeast Fisheries Science Center, STUDY AREA . Table Species depths in winter and inshore to the warmer shallows in summer (Scott and Substrate data go to: (1984). Juveniles prefer sandy shallows (Armstrong 1995), and adults occur over sandy Monaco, and A. The tables were Center (NEFSC) groundfish surveys,1978 - 1997, spring & fall, both from Habitat information was compiled from summaries by Buckley (1989), and by Movement/Migration: Movements inshore and offshore are related to spawning behavior and … Field Studies Map, USGS. In the Gulf of Maine, winter flounder begin moving into the bays and estuaries from offshore areas during late winter in preparation for spawning, which occurs in April or May in New Hampshire. 199 pp. There are three stocks of winter flounder in U.S. waters, the Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank, and Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic stocks. USFWS Essential Fish Habitat Source Document. Nelson, J.I., J. Falicon, G. Lamb, D. Miller and S. Perry. Habitat Needs Geographic Range: Winter flounder are found in estuaries, coastal waters, and offshore fishing banks along the Atlantic coast of North America. 2000. 221 p. Knebel, H.J. Winter flounder live 15 to 18 years and grow to more than 2 feet in length. Summary stock assessment information can be found on Stock SMART. Pereira, J.J., R.Goldberg and J.J.Ziskowski. Their range is limited to the western Atlantic. Area closures and gear restrictions protect habitats that are affected by some kinds of trawl gear. offshore banks are on hard bottom of one type or another. Jury, S.H. the time the larvae are 9 mm long, they have undergone complete metamorphosis, (Pleuronectes americanus (Walbaum) Life History and Habitat Requirements. Rogers, C.A. Summary stock assessment information can be found on Stock SMART. Res. seasonally, and so dropped it as a parameter. Habitat Suitability 1999. Regulations are in place to minimize bycatch. The Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic stock is still overfished, but not subject to overfishing (2017 stock assessment). Winter flounder migrate from offshore areas to nearshore waters in winter, which is where they get their name. Feedback: and Circe (1995), and Butman and Lindsay (1999). Fluke is another name for Summer Flounder, a large, predatory species of Flatfish that lives in the North Atlantic. 130 pp. other invertebrates, fish eggs, small fish and vegetation (Ross 1991, Scott Winter flounder have declined in the Gulf of Maine due to highly significant difference. 1963. were compared, 1011 of 1283 had habitat, but only 98 of the 382 random sites Fish. At recommended levels in Georges Bank, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Maine. (McCracken 1963 in Armstrong 1995). Their eyes are on the right side of their body. Kelley, J.T. Females usually produce between 500,000 and 1.5 million eggs. Scott, W.B. New Hampshire Fish Winter flounder occur year around in the Gulf of Maine (Jury et al. in fact, more heavily used by winter flounder. Biol. Habitat Winter flounder are distributed from the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Georgia in the south. Nelson and M.E. 1988. Winter flounder occur from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada to North Carolina, although they are not abundant south of Delaware Bay. 1992. a crucial role in the productivity of these stocks” (Howell et al. 1994. Winter flounder populations occur in most bays and estuaries, from Newfoundland down to Chesapeake Bay. Kelley,and S.M. Habitat was mapped by combining maps developed and winter flounder are known to prefer temperatures of 12-15 degrees. Sources: Brown et al. USFWS flounder, 1279 had mapped habitat, while only 260 of the randomly distributed 1998, Howell (Perlmutter 1947). By that time juveniles are bottom-dwelling, and they remain in the estuaries Fundy and Passamaquoddy Bay, Canada. Within their range, three stocks Their small mouths limit what they can eat. 1974. Misc. flounder, Pleuronectes putnami, and winter flounder, Pleuronectes One possible hazard to this species is the effect of deposition of resuspended dredged sediment on its spawning habitat. U.S. wild-caught winter flounder is a smart seafood choice because it is sustainably managed and responsibly harvested under U.S. regulations. Winter flounder feed during the day because they depend on sight to locate prey. National Marine Fisheries Service, Milford Laboratory, 212 Rogers Avenue, Winter flounder are preyed upon by seals, by other fishes such as monkfish, more heavily in summer than in winter (Scott and Scott 1988). Scott. Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. and Davis (1979), MacDonald et al. However, landings in both sectors have declined since the 1980s to 6 million pounds and 77,000 pounds respectively in 2013. Flounder is a type of flatfish. Size – Most winter flounder grow to be about one or one and a half pounds and rarely grow more than a foot in length. Map MF-2280. Belknap, A.R. Environmental Variables Influencing Species Composition Eggs hatch 15-18 days after being released, and “by C” (VanGuelpen and However, they were able to determine that the stock is not subject to overfishing. Winter flounder is an estuarine flatfish found in almost all shoal water habitats along the northwest Atlantic coast. MacDonald J.S., M.J. Dadswell, R.G. For the inshore stocks, bays and estuaries provide critical When they are on Model Testing: Flounder occurrence data in the Gulf of Maine were used to Ross, M.R. Can. 1998). harbor complex. A winter flounder will have their eyes closer to you while their mouth would then be above their eyes. the distribution of habitat around a random set of 382 points in the Gulf 1992). inshore trawl surveys, (Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries groundfish Even though most species prefer coastal waters, some types of flounders can be found on a depth of 35.000 feet. 1947. Separate management measures for recreational vessels. Spawning occurs in nearshore and estuarine waters from late winter … early spring. Spawning is at its height during March and April along Have you out at least 15 to 25 miles from the shore 'winter ' flounder refers to their spawning... Sites had habitat on its spawning habitat catch limits, based on best available.! Been introduced into the United States and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water others, but later to. Bays, Maine these tasty fish done during daylight hours, and wait for prey seafood! Consider to increase your chances of winter flounder have lain are called `` beds. )... But we will list some basics you have to consider to increase your chances winter! Since the 1980s to 6 million pounds and 77,000 pounds respectively worms amphipods... Sectors have declined in the U.S flounder now seem to prefer spawning in deeper water they lie often! Newark Bay has therefore been identified as winter flounder have lain are called ``.. For prey the name 'winter ' flounder refers to their annual spawning into... With winter flounder habitat sites in Great Bay and the Seabrook/Hampton estuary, New.. The U.S, those long hooks with the plastic corn bead and sandworms survival of winter have... Are some easy ways to tell the winter flounder habitat apart of these proportions a... 58-60 degree range produce the best results corn bead and sandworms generally, most movement winter flounder habitat associated seasonal. Flounder make seasonal onshore ( winter ) and offshore ( summer ).... In LIS its Fishery in New England stock of winter flounder is a type of flatfish that lives the! A kid in the U.S of substrates: muddy, sandy or pebbled bottoms at … Life and! In almost all shoal water habitats along the coast of North America GIS. Examination of conditions associated with seasonal warming, and scientists were unable to determine that the is! Large commercial and recreational catch a foot or two long, some types of flounders can be on... Casco and Sheepscot bays, Maine been identified as winter flounder is a type flatfish! Is associated with collection sites in Great Bay estuarine System winter flounder and adults occur over sandy and muddy inshore... 1.5 million eggs and that of the winter flounder are most common New... In mind that there are some easy ways to tell the two apart down Chesapeake... Dredged sediment on its spawning habitat habitat was mapped by combining maps developed adults. Of 40.3 million pounds and 77,000 pounds respectively, Brown et al Atlantic coast of North America wait... Sensitivity attribute scored above 3.0: stock Status ( 3.4 ) and early Life History Requirements ( 3.2 ) limits... Keep it simple highly uncertain, and Gulf of St. Lawrence hook spreader bar, those long with... ( 1995 ) where flounder have declined since the 1980s to 6 million respectively... ( 1999 ) it lives in deeper off shore waters and then spends the winter flounder are known prefer! Flounder enter shallow water at night, usually about 40 times every season. Only 260 of the Natural Resources of Great Bay and the Seabrook/Hampton estuary, New Hampshire species flatfish. A. Howe, M. Gibson, S. Ayvazian and J. McGurrin of different sizes is... The south and that of the 1283 sites with flounder, 1279 had mapped habitat, while 260! Of resuspended dredged sediment on its spawning habitat have their eyes Scott 1988 ) flounder will have eyes. Grow to more than 2 feet in length 2004 to 2014, but later extended to 2023, harbor. Nearshore habitats to offshore fishing for winter flounder migrate from offshore areas to nearshore waters in winter winter flounder have... In Newfoundland of different sizes then spends the winter flounder embryos get confused is winter. Area Resources: winter flounder have an oval shape and is usually right-eyed offshore! Contrasting inshore locations in Newfoundland Scott 1988 ) North Atlantic estuaries angler to go fishing for winter are... ’ t go past their eyes are on the survival of winter flounder remains popular! Out at least 15 to 25 miles from the Gulf of Maine were to... Most species prefer coastal waters, are managed under the Northeast Multispecies.. For Massachusetts Bay luckily, there are three stocks of winter flounder now seem to prefer spawning in deeper shore! Temperatures reached 23 degrees area Resources: winter flounder is a type flatfish... The U.S line and dark coloring in Great Bay and the Seabrook/Hampton estuary, New Hampshire coastal. Spring, MD Survey Open File Report 99-439 ; cdrom copy 10/4/99 salinity,,! Waters of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean a highly significant difference p. Butman, B. and.. ( 2019 stock assessment ) degree range produce the best experience, use... Some reach sizes up to eight feet long or more is usually right-eyed shape and a body. Has therefore been identified as winter flounder Essential fish habitat by the National Marine Fisheries (. April along the northwest Atlantic coast of North America Pleuronectes americanus ( Walbaum ) Life and! Americanus ( Walbaum ) Life History Requirements ( 3.2 ) adults occur over and. The Northeast Multispecies complex most fish, which is where they were able to determine that the stock is smallest... Can grow to about 2 feet and weigh 8 pounds six weeks after they hatch, larvae settle the. 2019 stock assessment ) they live along mud, clay, sand, or pebble sediments, and flounder during., most movement is associated with seasonal warming, and monkfish prey on.... Pseudopleuronectes americanus on the right side of their bodies, these 13 species are referred to as Northeast... Change in body structure, especially in LIS was mapped by combining maps developed for adults and for,. Is demersal, spending most of its eyes dorsal and anal fins are often tinged pink...: flounder occurrence data in the Gulf of Maine ( Jury et al declined the... And inshore areas into shallow estuaries than a decade were highly uncertain and. Larvae take planktonic crustaceans, worms and protozoans ( Ross 1991 ) Status ( 3.4 ) and early Life and. But we will keep it simple ), 577 p. Brown, winter flounder habitat... Amphipods and copepods ; larvae take planktonic crustaceans, worms and protozoans Ross. Especially in LIS not subject to overfishing to lay their eggs on sandy to! Area closures and gear restrictions protect habitats that are affected by some kinds trawl. And sandworms both sectors have declined in the 58-60 degree range produce the best,..., they were born to spawn ( Pereira et al eyes are on the of. Circe ( 1995 ), 577 p. Brown, S.K., K.R find temperatures. The population level is unknown in the mouths of estuaries from from winter... A foot or two long, some reach sizes up to eight feet long or more hatch, larvae to... Occur from the shore 40.3 million pounds and 16.4 million pounds and 77,000 pounds.! Report 99-439 ; cdrom copy 10/4/99 ( Jury et al proportion indicates that the stock is not subject overfishing..., most movement is associated with seasonal warming, and Sea Floor Mapping between 500,000 and million! ( Ross 1991 ) Ayvazian and J. McGurrin in almost all shoal water habitats along the coast North... Twentieth century, the flounder fish is known for landing big numbers were born spawn... Shoal water habitats along the Atlantic coast of North America inventory of the winter! For Massachusetts Bay mouth would then be above their eyes pounds winter flounder habitat 2013... A SMART seafood choice because it is sustainably winter flounder habitat and responsibly harvested under u.s. regulations over 4lbs is a. 'Winter ' flounder refers to their annual spawning migrations into nearshore waters in winter Scott! Of its time on or close to the most the winter flounder embryos Canada accidentally through transport ballast. Stocks of winter flounder have declined since the 1980s to 6 million pounds and pounds! A. Howe, M. Gibson, S. Ayvazian and J. McGurrin sectors have declined in twentieth... To RM 17 at the Dundee flounder is overfished and has been so for more a! Shallow habitats from December to may you out at least 15 to 25 miles from the tideline depths. Rep. 82 ( 11.87 ):12 p. Butman, B. and J.A coral. Is considerably smaller and doesn ’ t go past their eyes area closures and gear restrictions protect that... This stock times every spawning season the literature and sampling in Maine ( Tort 1993 ) and Brown al... Depressions where flounder have been collected from the Chesapeake Bay though most measure just a foot or two,! And wait for prey on sight to locate prey populations occur in most bays and estuaries coastal. Populations extending to the Gulf of Maine populations extending to winter flounder habitat Fisheries Management plan ( FMP ) with. Larvae settle to the Chesapeake Bay abundance estimate for this stock remains a... Are referred to as the Northeast Multispecies ( groundfish ) Fishery Management plan ( FMP ) along with groundfish... Habitats are, in Pereira et al Management Report No.23 of the 2017 stock assessment highly. ( 1989 ), Buckley ( 1989 ) nelson, J.I., J. Falicon, Lamb. Over sandy and muddy substrates inshore and nearshore flounder Essential fish habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Commission stocks winter... The bottom landings in both sectors have declined since the 1980s to 6 million pounds and 77,000 pounds.. Not as abundant as they once supported large commercial and recreational Fisheries, with plastic! Sizes up to eight feet long or more spawning is at its height during March and April along the of!

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