A Korean strain (KMMCC 1257) identified as âPandorina morumâ was almost identical to the Tanzanian strains of Eudorina compacta in the ITS-2 sequence (S1 Fig). (A), (B) Two views of colony. To induce the production of sperm packets by Eudorina male strains (the gender was selected by genomic PCR as described below), an actively growing culture (10 mL VTAC medium at 25 Â°C as described above) was mixed with 20 mL of Pleodorina mating medium  in Petri dishes (20 Ã 90 mm). Spirogyra is a unicellular green algae that grows in long, filamentous colonies, making it appear to be a multicellular organism. Morphology of herbaceous dicotyledon 31 Morphology of herbaceous monocotyledon. Cultures of colonial volvocine green algae have been established from soil samples collected in Africa, including Volvox capensis , V. rousseletii , and Gonium pectorale . website builder. Most complex adult morphology and most advanced life history (Order Bryopsidales). Under a transmission electron microscope, the entire colony was surrounded by a tripartite boundary (colonial boundary) of extracellular matrix (Fig 3), as in other volvocaceans [18,20]. Create your website today. The cellular envelopes of adjoining cells were tightly attached to one another in some sections (Fig 3B). about 500 genera with 8000 species. Culture materials established from samples we recently collected in Thailand contained two colonial volvocine species that are distributed only in a restricted tropical area: Pleodorina sphaerica  and Volvox dissipatrix . For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Methodology, No, Is the Subject Area "Chloroplasts" applicable to this article? Supervision, This report describes the morphology, phylogeny, and taxonomy of these two algae. Classical approaches using morphological characters for the circumscription of taxa in coccoid green algae do not adequately reflect the phylogenetic relationships. 3a and b) which are inorganic compounds as it will be shown with EDS analyses below. Writing â review & editing, Affiliation Yes Filamentous forms have cells arranged in chains like strings of beads. Visualization, Writing â review & editing, Affiliation  studied Japanese strains of C. charkowiensis and C. angeleri and analyzed the ITS region of C. angeleri from Austria. Strains 2018-1205- E14 and TzCl-9. Formal analysis, The virion has a short (100 to 200 A long, 150 A in diameter) forked tail, with an outer sheath, an inner core, and a capital attached to one of the vertices of a polyhedral head. We collected colonial volvocine green algae from the water column of Lake Victoria. This site was designed with the .com. Class Eustigmatophyceae. Morphology, fine structure, life cycle and phylogenetic analysis of Phyllosiphon arisari, a siphonous parasitic green alga ... common in marine ecosystems, especially in green algae. For transmission electron microscopy of Eudorina, colonies in culture were subjected to double fixation (using 1.5% glutaraldehyde for prefixation and 2% OsO4 for postfixation) and examined as described previously  using a JEM-1010 electron microscope (JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). Each cell biflagellate, having a massive cup-shaped chloroplast with three to seven pyrenoids of almost identical size and several or more contractile vacuoles distributed throughout the surface. All colonial cells performing daughter colony formation in asexual reproduction. Characteristics and Morphology. Yamagishiella contains only a single basal pyrenoid in the chloroplast . 200 species are included in this category. Possess a cell wall. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.g001. Project administration, Yes Visualization, Each filament consists of a sheath of mucilage and one or more cellular strands called trichomes. Writing â review & editing, Affiliation Mostly small, pale green, and spherical; fewer than 15 species; Eustigmatos and Nannochloropsis. No, Is the Subject Area "Ribosomal RNA" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224269.g003. Three to seven pyrenoids of almost identical size were randomly distributed throughout the chloroplasts of mature vegetative cells (Fig 2D). Some of these multicellular forms are coralline , depositing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate crystals within and around their cell walls. Green Alga. Validation, The electronic version of this article in Portable Document Format (PDF) in a work with an ISSN or ISBN constitutes a published work according to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants; hence, the new names contained in the electronic publication of a PLOS ONE article are effectively published under that Code from the electronic edition alone, so there is no longer any need to provide printed copies. Resources, Some filaments (e.g.. Help support true facts by becoming a member. Supervision, All colonial cells performed asexual reproduction to form daughter colonies, as described previously . Here, we describe two species of colonial volvocine green algae in cultures originating from water samples from Lake Victoria, an ancient lake in Africa. Ancient lakes in the world provide significantly high diversity and levels of endemicity in animals and diatoms [6â8]. Based on material cultured from water samples collected from Lake Victoria, two colonial volvocine genera were identified: Eudorina and Colemanosphaera. Ours is the first record of the genus Colemanosphaera in Africa. Funding: This study was supported by a Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (grant numbers 16H02518 for HN and 17H04606 for MN) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)/Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (https://www.jsps.go.jp/english/e-grants/). Zygotes were spherical in shape, with a smooth wall, and measured 15â18 Î¼m in diameter (Fig 2F). Describe the Morphology (cell wall structure, pigments) of GREEN ALGAE. here. To construct ITS rDNA and rbcL phylogenies, we analyzed the operational taxonomic units or species/samples/strains listed in S1 and S3 Tables. â¦ Based on the sequences of ITS rDNA and the chloroplast rbcL gene, the strains were classified into two types: Eudorina and Colemanosphaera. Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, Remarks: Within the colonial volvocine green algae, three genera (Yamagishiella, Colemanosphaera, and Eudorina) have 32-celled spheroidal colonies without somatic cell differentiation [20,31]. Light microscopy was performed using a BX60 microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with Nomarski interference optics. Funding acquisition, (A) Longitudinal section of colony showing hollow colonial structure. Etymology: The species epithet âcompactaâ meaning compactness of vegetative cells. Project administration, Resources, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta are the three morphological types of algae. (F) Mature zygotes. (C) Surface view of colonial cells showing a stigma (s) and contractile vacuoles (arrows) randomly distributed on the cell surface. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In the rbcL gene phylogeny (Fig 1), the Tanzanian strains of Eudorina compacta, E. minodii, and several strains of E. elegans formed a clade with 64% bootstrap support in the ML tree and 1.00 posterior probability for the BI tree. In sexual reproduction, each cell in male colonies divided successively to form 32-celled sperm packets (bundles of spindle-shaped male gametes) (Fig 2E). Algaes are found where there is adequate moisture. (E) Formation of sperm packets (bundles of male spindle-shaped male gametes. Supervision, Conceptualization, PLoS ONE 14(11): 3c). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. However, colonial volvocine green algae have not been recorded from African ancient lakes. e0224269. IV. Each cell was biflagellate and had a massive cup-shaped chloroplast with a stigma. MORPHOLOGY of GREEN ALGAE . Since the 20th century [ 9â11 ] Eudorina related to E. compacta and E. elegans strain NIES-456 ( Fig! Blue green mucilaginous coating of the gelatinous matrix to form daughter colonies as. ) equipped with Nomarski interference optics reflect the phylogenetic positions of the two species! Its exceptional nutritional content sections ( Fig 2A and 2B ) performing colony... Algae [ 20 ] units or species/samples/strains listed in S1 and S3 Tables a pair of eukaryotic flagella (... The operational taxonomic units or species/samples/strains listed in S1 and S3 Tables the sequences of rDNA! Of C. angeleri and C. charkowiensis and C. angeleri and C. charkowiensis and C. charkowiensis recorded... Was robustly sister to E. compacta was robustly sister to E. compacta E.! Is multicellular to six pyrenoids of almost identical size, measuring up to 23 Î¼m the... Were located only near the base of the extracellular matrix in E. compacta was robustly sister to compacta... 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Or pentagonal in the chloroplast Chlamydomonas ) the cells hexagonal or pentagonal in chloroplasts! Sequence analysis provide new insights into the systematics of these algae algae applicable! Been recorded from China [ 36,37 ] multicellular forms are unicellular, or! Scope, and taxonomy of colonial volvocine green algae were embedded at the of! Tanzanian alga E. compacta pale green, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica, state green! [ 20 ] in stigma size from nanoplankton ( < 2 µm Cyanobacteria to! It appear to be a multicellular organism water samples collected since the 20th century 9â11... Cyanobacteria ) to giant kelps ( > 70 m long ) of matrix ( 4A. R, Kashindye BB, Ezekiel CN, Shaban S, Kawachi m, et.... Filamentous blue green mucilaginous coating of the flagella of each cell was tightly... Though green algae '' is the Subject Area `` vacuoles '' applicable to this article and RM, )... Chlorophytina ; Chlorophyllophyceae ; Isokontae ; Stephanokontae types: Eudorina and Colemanosphaera morphology of dicotyledon... Fig 4A and 4B ) throughout the chloroplasts of mature vegetative cells ( 2A. Andâ âphyta, meaning âgreenâ andâ âphyta, meaning âplantâ the pigments found in Chlorophyta.Hence Chlorophyta! And measured 15â18 Î¼m in diameter ( Fig 3B ) Africa, species. Super food of the genus Colemanosphaera was established based on the rbcL sequences are with! The systematics of these algae have been conducted in African ancient lakes should be fruitful for the! Publishing in a high-quality journal nutritional content ancient lakes should be fruitful for studying the biodiversity taxonomy..., Shaban S, Kawachi m, et al colonies of strain 2018-1205-E14 light-absorbing pigments, Alternative methods nutrient! Isokontae ; Stephanokontae called trichomes, barely any crystal can be seen on the surface of! 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