What did freedom mean to African Americans? The Homestead Act, meant to open the West to small farmers, was often frustrated by railroad corporations and speculators. Andrew Johnson, “Proclamation 179—Granting Full Pardon and Amnesty for the Offense of Treason Against the United States During the Late Civil War,” December 25, 1868. 15, in which land in Georgia and South Carolina was to be set aside as a homestead for the freedpeople. Many had been born free or had gained their freedom before the Civil War. Wartime labor shortages promoted the use of mechanical reapers, reducing demand for labor, boosting farm yields, and sowing the seeds of inequality. Southerners did make astonishing gains in industrial production during this time, but it was never enough. How and why did Reconstruction end in 1877? A Free and Online, Collaboratively Built American History Textbook Yawp \yôp\ n: 1: a raucous noise 2: rough vigorous language"I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world." Meanwhile, this washerwoman and others like her set wages and hours for themselves, and in many cases began to take washing into their own homes in order to avoid the surveillance of white women and the sexual threat posed by white men.28. In the South, limits on human freedom endured and would stand for nearly a century more. Start studying American Yawp Chapter 10. But southern white men were almost never prosecuted for violence against Black victims. Democrats threatened to boycott Hayes’s inauguration. After the divisive, destructive Civil War, Abraham Lincoln had a plan to : . Republicans, fearing another sectional crisis, reached out to Democrats. Joseph E. Baker, The ‘Rail Splitter’ at Work Repairing the Union, 1865. . HOW: Allowed Southerners to take an oath of allegiance. Meanwhile, New Departure Democrats—who focused on business, economics, political corruption, and trade—gained strength by distancing themselves from pro-slavery Democrats and Copperheads. In an increasingly digital world in which pedagogical trends are de-emphasizing rote learning and professors are increasingly turning toward active-learning exercises, scholars are fleeing traditional textbooks. Resistance continued, and Reconstruction eventually collapsed. Their efforts to control their labor met the immediate opposition of southern white women. Access to pulpits and growing congregations provided a foundation for ministers’ political leadership. The House of Representatives approved the Fourteenth Amendment on June 13, 1866. On December 22, 1871, R. Latham of Yorkville, South Carolina, wrote to the New York Tribune, voicing the beliefs of many white southerners as he declared that “the same principle that prompted the white men at Boston, disguised as Indians, to board, during the darkness of night, a vessel with tea, and throw her cargo into the Bay, clothed some of our people in Ku Klux gowns, and sent them out on missions technically illegal. National attention shifted away from the South and the activities of the Klan, but African Americans remained trapped in a world of white supremacy that restricted their economic, social, and political rights. Under the peculiar circumstances what could the people of South Carolina do but resort to Ku Kluxing?”33, Victims and witnesses to the violence told a different story. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton maintained a strong and productive relationship for nearly half a century as they sought to secure political rights for women. Although it established national citizenship for all persons born or naturalized in the United States, the amendment also introduced the word male into the Constitution for the first time. For the South as a whole, the war and Reconstruction marked the start of a period of deep poverty that would last until at least the New Deal of the 1930s. The process of reconstructing the Union began in 1863,two years before the Confederacy formally surrendered. Discuss the limits of Reconstruction with regard to the following issues: Economic opportunities for African Americans. The American Civil War, the bloodiest in the nation’s history, resulted in approximately 750,000 deaths.1The war touched the life of nearly every American as military mobilization reached levels never seen before or since. Many southern governments enacted legislation that reestablished antebellum power relationships. The factories and farms of the North successfully supplied Union troops, while the federal government, with some adjustments, found the means to pay for war. All such groups were part of a web of terror that spread throughout the South during Reconstruction. This print depicts a huge parade held in Baltimore, Maryland, on May 19, 1870, surrounded by portraits of abolitionists and scenes of African Americans exercising their rights. At the bottom, Johnson is trying to charm a Confederate Copperhead. .The man who tied me to a tree and gave me 39 lashes and who stripped and flogged my mother and my sister . Southern prosperity relied on over four million enslaved African American to grow cotton, along with a number of other staple crops across the region. Among them were skilled craftsmen like Emanuel Fortune, a shoemaker from Florida; ministers such as James D. Lynch from Mississippi; and teachers like William V. Turner from Alabama. South Carolina and Mississippi passed laws known as Black Codes to regulate Black behavior and impose social and economic control. The acts made it criminal to deprive African Americans of their civil rights. You are ready to say they did and we will not argue the point with you. Chapter 15: Reconstruction American Yawp Chapter Summary Europeans called the Americas “The New World.” But for the millions of Native Americans they encountered, it was anything but. What rights did freedom confer on formerly enslaved people? All southern women faced economic devastation, lasting wartime trauma, and enduring racial tensions. Fourteen men served in the House of Representatives. Tensions between northerners and southerners over styles of worship and educational requirements strained these associations. Module 15: Reconstruction Search for: Introduction to Reconstruction “Contrabands,” Cumberland Landing, Virginia, 1862, via Library of Congress. Massachusetts Agricultural College (now known as University of Massachusetts Amherst) was one of many colleges founded through the Federal Morrill-Land Grant Colleges Act. Newspaper ads sought information about long-lost relatives. Hayes was inaugurated in March 1877. Charlotte Forten was born into a wealthy Black family in Philadelphia. The answers to many of Reconstruction’s questions hinged upon the concepts of citizenship and equality. The Ku Klux Klan emerged in the late 1860s as the most infamous of these groups. If they could not pay the fine, the sheriff had the right to hire out his prisoner to anyone who was willing to pay the tax. From 1861 onward, the Confederate government struggled to find the guns, food, and supplies needed to field an army. As the war dragged on, inflation also hit the North. Section One granted citizenship and repealed the Taney Court’s infamous Dred Scott (1857) decision. “It passes my comprehension to tell what became of our railroads,” one South Carolinian told a Northern reporter. 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